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طراحی مدل متقن و استاندارد تحلیل مسائل روستا

مقدمه

بعد از اینکه اطلاعات کامل و جامعی از روستا به دست آمد، باید از طریق این اطلاعات و کمک مردم بتوان مسائل و مشکلات مردم را در موضوعات مختلف به صورت اولویت بندی شده به دست آورد. قرارگاه پیشرفت و آبادانی با توجه به مقدورات مالی، انسانی و زمانی خویش طراحی مدل تحلیل متقن و استاندارد را به گروه توسعه محلی سپرد.

در این مدل که مبتنی بر مدل وصفی فرهنگستان علوم اسلامی قم طراحی شده است، سعی شده که ابتدای امر یک نظام مسائل روستایی تهیه شود، سپس روش استخراج مسائل روستا در هر موضوع تدوین شده و در نهایت امر ارتباط هر مسئله با اطلاعاتی که در مدل شناسایی جمع آوری شده بود مشخص شود. در ادامه این موارد به طور اجمالی شرح داده می شود.

شرح مدل

مدل تحلیل در میدان با توجه به ویژگی‌های فرد شناساگری که از سوی قرارگاه پیشرفت و آبادانی انتخاب می‌شود برگرفته از مدل ارزیابی مشارکتی روستایی می‌باشد. این مدل تکنیک‌های زیادی برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات و تحلیل دارد، اما با توجه به مقدورات مالی، انسانی و زمانی برخی از این تکنیک‌ها در مدل موردنظر انتخاب شده است.

برای ایجاد یک مدل استاندارد جهت مسئله یابی در میدان یک ماتریس وصفی تشکیل شده است. برای طراحی این ماتریس لازم بود که علاوه بر اوصاف سه گانه یک نظام مسائل روستایی در موضوعات مختلف نیز به دست آید. بدین رو گروه توسعه محلی با توجه به گزارش های حدود 100 دهستان که از طریق قرارگاه پیشرفت و آبادانی به دست آمده بود و همچنین مطالعه مقالات و پایان نامه های دانشگاهی یک نظام مسائل جامع به دست آورد. سپس مسائل به دست آمده در ماتریس مورد نظر قرار گرفتند.

نحوه اجرای مدل

بعد از طراحی ماتریس و بانک نظام مسائل، روش احصاء مسائل به کمک مردم طراحی شد. در این مدل که با استفاده از روش ارزیابی مشارکتی بازطراحی شد، برای استخراج و احصاء مسائل روستایی در هر موضوع یک سری جلسات مشارکتی طراحی شده است. در این طراحی نحوه ی دعوت از مخاطبین و نوع مخاطبین مشخص شده است. در گام بعدی نحوه ی مدیریت جلسه و استفاده از ابزارهای لازم برای رسیدن به خواسته های جلسه تشریح شده است.

بعد از اینکه در این جلسات مسائل اولویت بندی شدند، تیم تحلیل با کمک مردم روستا باید سه مسئله ی اول را از طریق تکنیک استخوان ماهی ریشه یابی نماید. در این مدل توضیح داده شده است که چه افراد و با چه توانمندی هایی باید مسئولیت تحلیل در میدان را بر عهده بگیرند و مدیریت جلسات مشارکتی نیز بر عهده آن ها است. از سوی دیگر برای اینکه میزان اشتباه در تحلیل کاهش یابد، ربط میان مسائل احصاء شده و اطلاعات به دست آمده در مرحله شناسایی نیز مشخص شده است.

در انتهای امر تیم تحلیل باید بتواند برای مسائل به دست آمده یک اولویت بندی نماید، این اولویت بندی هم در یک موضوع – مثلاً موضوع معیشت و اشتغال- باید انجام پذیرد و هم به صورت فراموضوعی. یعنی اینکه مسائل حوزه های مختلف بدون دسته بندی موضوعی بتوانند اولویت بندی شوند. این روش اولویت بندی نیز در مدل طراحی و تدوین شده است.

لازم به ذکر است که این مدل با توجه به نیازهای کارفرما می تواند برای سازمان های دیگر بازطراحی شده و قابل استفاده گردد.

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